If not controlled, diabetes can put you at risk for a host of complications that can affect nearly every organ in the body. They include:
- The heart and blood vessels
- The eyes
- The kidneys
- The nerves
- The gums and teeth
Heart Disease, Blood Vessel Disease, and Diabetes
Heart disease and blood vessel disease are the biggest complications that people with uncontrolled diabetes face. In 2004, approximately 68% of diabetes-related death certificates among people aged 65 years or older were related to heart disease, with stroke being noted in 16% of death certificates. Diabetes can also cause poor blood flow in the legs and feet (peripheral artery disease).
Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about two to four times higher than adults without diabetes.The risk for stroke is two to four times higher .
Many studies show that controlling diabetes can prevent or stop the progression of heart and blood vessel disease.
Blood vessel damage or nerve damage (see below) may also lead to foot problems that can lead to amputations. More than 60% of leg and foot amputations not related to an injury are due to diabetes.
Diabetes and the Eyes
Diabetes is the leading cause of new blindness in the U.S. in adults ages 20-74. It can cause a number of eye problems, some of which can lead to blindness if not addressed. The eye disorders include:
- Diabetic retinopathy
Studies show that regular eye exams and timely treatment of diabetes-related eye problems could prevent up to 90% of diabetes-related blindness.
Kidney Disease and Diabetes
Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in adults in the U.S., accounting for 44% of new cases in 2008. Drugs that lower blood pressure (even if you don’t have high blood pressure) can lower risk of kidney failure by 33%.
Diabetes and Your Nerves
Over time, high blood sugar levels can harm the nerves. This can lead to loss of sensation or feeling (usually starting in the toes) or pain and burning of the feet. Approximately 60-70% of people with diabetes have some form of nerve damage.
Diabetes-related nerve damage can also cause pain in the legs, arms, and hands, and can cause problems with digestion, going to the bathroom, or having sex.
Diabetes and Your Teeth
People with diabetes are at high risk for gum disease. Keeping your diabetes under control, seeing your dentist regularly, and taking good daily care of your teeth can prevent gum disease and tooth loss.
The Cause of Diabetes Complications
Diabetes complications are caused by damage to the blood vessels, nerves, or both.
Symptoms of Diabetes Complications
Symptoms vary depending on the diabetes complication that you have. You may have:
- No symptoms if you have heart disease or atherosclerosis of a large blood vessel, unless you have a heart attack or stoke. Disease of the large blood vessels in your legs may cause problems with blood circulation, leading to leg cramps, changes in skin color, and decreased sensation.
- Vision problems, vision loss, or pain in your eye if you have diabetic eye disease
- No symptoms if you have early diabetes-related kidney disease. Swelling of the legs and feet occur in more advanced stages of kidney failure.
- Tingling, numbness, burning, or shooting or stabbing pain in the feet, hands, or other parts of your body, if the nerves are affected by diabetes (peripheral diabetic neuropathy). If the nerves that control internal organs are damaged (autonomic neuropathy), you may have sexual problems, digestive problems (a condition called gastroparesis); difficulty sensing when your bladder is full; dizziness, fainting, or difficulty knowing when your blood sugar is low.
Prevention of Diabetes Complications
When diabetes complications are found early, you might only have to take medication to prevent progression of the disease. Only minor lifestyle changes may be necessary. For example, if you have early diabetic nephropathy, you can take medication to prevent further damage. Early treatment for a complication and keeping your blood sugar levels within a safe range can help slow the progression of your complication and may prevent other complications from developing.
Treatment of Diabetes Complications
Treatment of diabetes complications focuses on slowing the progression of the damage. That may include medication, surgery, or other treatment options.
But the most important treatment to slow the progression of diabetes complications is to keep your blood sugar levels tightly in control and to treat high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
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